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Robotics (Download Full Seminar Report)

ROBOT”Mechatronic device consists of Brain (computer) and sensorsand mechanical parts. There are four laws to be followed for Robo implementation Robots predict like Human by applying ARRTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE concept to them.Then they can think like Humans that is they acquire SIXTH SENSE. RISE OF MACHINES that is ROBOT has undergone four types of step by step Generation.Robot is a combination of many systems such as Controller, Mobility, Sensor etc¦

The robot Hands are moved using the MATRIX Transformation techniques.Robots have advantage over many fields such as medical, space, agriculture etc¦There are some dangerous things may happen by robots when they do dangerous jobs. Robot “The TERMINATOR which can terminate the given job without failure.



What is Robotics/A.I
• Robotics is the study of the design, construction
and use of robots.
• Artificial intelligence is the branch of computer
science that deals with writing computer
programs that can solve problems creatively;
"workers in AI hope to imitate or duplicate
intelligence in computers and robots"

Definition of a Robot
• "A reprogrammable, multifunctional
manipulator designed to move material, parts,
tools, or specialized devices through various
programmed motions for the performance of a
variety of tasks" .
• Or a simpler version
• An automatic device that performs functions normally
ascribed to humans or a machine in the form of a human.

What is a Robot
• The term robot derives from the
Czech word robota, meaning
forced work or compulsory
service, or robotnik, meaning
• First used to describe fabricated
workers in a fictional 1920s play
called Rossum’s Universal
Robots by Czech author Karel

Robots in Early History
• Ancient Greek poet Homer described maidens of gold,
mechanical helpers built by Hephaistos, the Greek god
of metalsmiths.
• The golems of medieval Jewish legend were robot-like
servants made of clay, brought to life by a spoken
• In 1495, Leonardo da Vinci drew plans for a
mechanical man.
• Real robots were only possible in the 1950s and 1960s
with the introduction of transistors and integrated

First Commercial Robot
• After the 1950’s the first
commercial robot
nicknamed the
'Unimate‘, was created.
• The first Unimate was
installed at a General
Motors plant to work
with heated die-casting
machines .
Following the early instances of robots in plays
and science fiction stories , robots then started
to appear on television shows, like Lost in Space
and then in Hollywood movies.
• In Lost in Space the robot demonstrated human
characteristics such as feelings and emotions.
• Scientists today are still a long way off from
programming robots which can think and act
like humans.

its a nice opic.Thanq for giving such a nice topicSmile
hi please send the entire report related to this topic
please go through the following threads for more details on Robotics.

please send me the detailed report of the seminars topic : Artificial Intelligence in Robotics to my mail idConfusedonu.rashu[at]
Saeed B. Niku, “Introduction to robotics,” Prentice Hall, 2001
John Craig, “Introduction to robotics,3rd Ed.” Prentice Hall, 2005
Mark W. Spong, M. Vidyasagar, “Robot Dynamics and Control”, John Wiley.
Richard P. Paul, “Robot Manipulators: Mathematics, Programming and Control”, MIT Press
Course Objectives
At the end of this course, you should be able to:
Describe and analyze rigid motion.
Write down manipulator kinematics and operate with the resulting equations
Solve simple inverse kinematics problems.
A brief history of robotics. Coordinates and Coordinates Inversion. Trajectory planning. Sensors. Actuators and control. Why robotics?
Basic Kinematics. Introduction. Reference frames. Translation. Rotation. Rigid body motion. Velocity and acceleration for General Rigid Motion. Relative motion. Homogeneous coordinates.
Robot Kinematics. Forward kinematics. Link description and connection. Manipulator kinematics. The workspace.
Syllabus (cont.)
Inverse Kinematics. Introduction. Solvability. Inverse Kinematics. Examples. Repeatability and accuracy.
Basic Dynamics. Definitions and notation. Laws of Motion.
Trajectory Planning
Policies and Grades
There will be two homework assignments, one mid-term and one final examinations.
The test will be close book. The homeworks will count 7.5% each towards the final grade, the midterm exam 30%, final exam 40% and lab 15%.
Policies and Grades (cont.)
Collaboration in the sense of discussions is allowed. You should write final solutions and understand them fully. Violation of this norm will be considered cheating, and will be taken into account accordingly.
Can work alone or in teams of 2
You can also consult additional books and references but not copy from them.
The Project
EXTRA 10% marks on overall performance!
Can work alone or in teams of 2
What is a Robot?
Why use Robots?
Robot History
Robot Applications
What is a robot?
Origin of the word “robot”
Czech word “robota”– labor, “robotnik” – workman
1923 play by Karel Capek – Rossum’s Universal Robots
Definition: (no precise definition yet)
Webster’s Dictionary
An automatic device that performs functions ordinarily ascribed to human beings èwashing machine = robot?
Robotics Institute of American
A robot (industrial robot) is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices, through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.
What is a robot?
By general agreement, a robot is:
A programmable machine that imitates the actions or appearance of an intelligent creature–usually a human.
To qualify as a robot, a machine must be able to:
1) Sensing and perception: get information from its surroundings
2) Carry out different tasks: Locomotion or manipulation, do something physical–such as move or manipulate objects
3) Re-programmable: can do different things
4) Function autonomously and/or interact with human beings
Types of Robots
Robot Manipulators
Types of Robots
Mobile Robot Examples
Autonomous Robot Examples
Why Use Robots?
Application in 4D environments
4A tasks
Why Use Robots?
Increase product quality
Superior Accuracies (thousands of an inch, wafer-handling: microinch)
Repeatable precision è Consistency of products
Increase efficiency
Work continuously without fatigue
Need no vacation
Increase safety
Operate in dangerous environment
Need no environmental comfort – air conditioning, noise protection, etc
Reduce Cost
Reduce scrap rate
Lower in-process inventory
Lower labor cost
Reduce manufacturing lead time
Rapid response to changes in design
Increase productivity
Value of output per person per hour increases
Robot History
George C. Devol obtains the first U.S. robot patent, No. 2,998,237.
– Joe Engelberger formed Unimation and was the first to market robots
First production version Unimate industrial robot is installed in a die-casting machine
Unimation, Inc. was formed, (Unimation stood for "Universal Automation")
Robot History
Unimation takes its first multi-robot order from General Motors.
"Shakey," the first intelligent mobile robot system was built at Stanford Research Institute, California.
Robot History
Shakey (Stanford Research Institute)
the first mobile robot to be operated using AI techniques
Simple tasks to solve:
To recognize an object using vision
Find its way to the object
Perform some action on the object (for example, to push it over)
Robot History
Robot vision, for mobile robot guidance, is demonstrated at the Stanford Research Institute.
Unimate robots assemble Chevrolet Vega automobile bodies for General Motors.
General Motors becomes the first company to use machine vision in an industrial application The Consight system is installed at a foundry in St. Catherines, Ontario, Canada.
The Stanford Cart
Stanford Cart
Equipped with stereo vision.
Take pictures from several different angles
The computer gauged the distance between the cart and obstacles in its path
Robot History

The first PUMA (Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly) robot is developed by Unimation for General Motors.
IBM enters the robotics field with its 7535 and 7565 Manufacturing Systems.
Westinghouse Electric Corporation bought Unimation, Inc., which became part of its factory automation enterprise. Westinghouse later sold Unimation to Staubli of Switzerland.
Industrial Robot --- PUMA
Installed Industrial Robots
How are they used?
Industrial robots
70% welding and painting
20% pick and place
10% others
Research focus on
Manipulator control
End-effector design
Compliance device
Dexterity robot hand
Visual and force feedback
Flexible automation
Robotics: a much bigger industry
Robot Manipulators
Assembly, automation
Field robots
Military applications
Space exploration
Service robots
Cleaning robots
Medical robots
Entertainment robots
Field Robots
Service robots

The Course at a Glimpse: Kinematics
F(robot variables) = world coordinates
x = x(x1,¼, xn)
y = y(x1,¼, xn)
z = z(x1,¼, xn)
In a “cascade” robot, Kinematics is a single-valued mapping.
“Easy” to compute.
Kinematics: Example
x1= q, x2=r
1£ r £ 4.5
0 £ q£ 50o
Inverse Kinematics
G(world coordinates) = robot variables
x1 = x1(x,y,z)
x1 = x1(x,y,z)
The inverse problem has a lot of geometrical difficulties
inversion may not be unique!
Inverse Kinematics: Example
Introduction to Robotics
The robots of the movies, such as C-3PO and the Terminator are portrayed as fantastic,
intelligent, even dangerous forms of artificial life. However, robots of today are not exactly the
walking, talking intelligent machines of movies, stories and our dreams. Today, we find most
robots working for people in factories, warehouses, and laboratories. In the future, robots may
show up in other places: our schools, our homes, even our bodies.
Robots have the potential to change our economy, our health, our standard of living, our
knowledge and the world in which we live. As the technology progresses, we are finding new
ways to use robots. Each new use brings new hope and possibilities, but also potential dangers
and risks.
History of Robots
When did the first robot appear?

In the 1920's, Karl Capek from Czechoslovakia introduced the world's first robot on stage. His
play was entitled "Rossum's Universal Robots." The theme of the play was robots controlling
humans in society. Although he introduced the idea of robots, Karl Capek was skeptical about
how much of an impact robots could have. He rejected all suggestions that a robot could ever
replace a human being, or have feelings such as love or rebellion.
Where did the word robot come from?
The word "robot," a Czech term for forced labor or serf, was also introduced by a Capek. Karl
was wondering what to call the "artificial workers" in his play, and he thought they should be
called "labori." His brother didn't like that idea, and muttered that they should be called "robots."
Then, the term "robot" was born.
What is a Robot?
Simply, a robot is any machine that does work on its own, after being programmed by a human.
Some examples of common robots are an alarm clock and a photocopier. (Ask the Mission
Team members how an alarm clock and a photocopier could be considered robots. Ask them to
come up with other examples of robots.) Ninety percent of robots in use today are industrial
robots. That means they are used to assemble products; handle dangerous material; spray
finishes on products; and even inspect parts, produce, and livestock. Robots can be found in
factories, warehouses, laboratories, energy plants, hospitals, and even on the space shuttle.
What is the hardest thing for a robot to do?
The hardest thing for a robot to do is to walk. This is hard for the creators of the robot as well,
since the act of walking involves hundreds of specific motions. Also, a large part of walking time
is spent on one leg, so it is important for the robot to have good balance, just like a child learning
to walk! Some real robots must walk on uneven surfaces, like the surface of Mars, so
these robots need sensors in their legs to find good footholds!
Why Use Robots?
There are many benefits to using robots instead of humans. Can you imagine working in a
factory all day, every day, doing the exact same thing over and over again? The good thing about
robots is that they will never get bored, and they will do things more efficiently than people.
Also, robots never get sick, or need to rest. This means they can work for 24 hours a day, 7 days
a week. They will never need time off, or lunch breaks. Sometimes, when a task is too dangerous
or difficult for a human, a robot will be able to do it without any risks or problems. Some
interesting places robots have travelled include space, the depths of the ocean, inside volcanoes,
into buildings containing bombs, and others. Robots are sent out when the "mission" may be too
dangerous for a human. Robots are regularly used by police forces around the world to disarm
bombs, and by scientists to venture inside volcanoes to gather important data. A robot-camera
named Jason was also involved in the discovery and exploration of the Titanic shipwreck in
1986. Jason was attached to a mini-submarine, and the crew up above directed the minisubmarine
throughout the wreck, obtaining some great pictures!

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What comes to mind when I say The Matrix, Terminator, or A Space Odyssey? All of these movies have super-intelligent robots that turn on their human creators. Many people fear that as robots become more intelligent they will be able to use their strength and power against us. Though robots are far from this, many scientists believe that soon robots will be universal.
Robotics is the study of robots. What is a robot? According to robotics researcher Hans Moravec of Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Institute, “a robot is a programmable machine that imitates the action or appearance of an intelligent creature.” In order to be classified as a robot it must be able to react to its surroundings and have physical activity. There are two main types of robots. A rover, or ROV, allows a human to control its movements. An autonomous robot can make judgments and act accordingly. This paper will explain the history of robots, how they work, advantages and disadvantages, and examples of current and future robots.
History of Robots
The Czech playwright Karel Capek created the word robot in the early 1920’s. It comes from the Czech word robota, which means drudgery or slave-like labor. The word robot was introduced in Capek’s play, Rossum’s Universal Robot’s. The play first opened in Prague in January 1921 and soon opened in Europe and the United States. In the play, a scientist invents robots to help humans with simple tasks. But after the robots were used in wars, they turned on the humans and took over the world. The picture to the left is the robot that appeared in a variation of Capek’s RUR. I think it is interesting that Capek did not actually believe that his idea of robots would ever exist. Yet, approximately 40 years later in the late 1950’s early 1960’s, the invention of transistors and integrated circuits made the development of robots possible.
In the 1940’s, the scientist/writer Isaac Asimov wrote a set of laws that he used in his fiction stories. These laws are called “The Three Laws of Robotics” and are known by many researchers today.
They are:
“A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.”
“A robot must obey the orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the first law.”
“A robot must protect its own existence, as long as this does not conflict with the first two laws.”
In 1968, a robot named “Shakey” was created at the John Hopkins Laboratory. This very large robot could simply find it’s way around a room. Today robots are used for many tasks.
How do Robots Work?
Robots can move and sense. They require multiple sensors and controls that allow them to move in an unknown environment. Robots usually have five parts. They are the controller, arm, drive/actuator, end-effector, and sensor.
The controller is the “computer” of the robot. It is often referred to as the “brain” of the robot. The controller allows robots to work with other machines, processes, or robots through networking. Right now, most controllers are controlled by a set of instructions written in code called a program.
The arm allows the robot to do its programmed task. Usually, a robot’s arm is like a human arm with a shoulder, elbow, wrist, and fingers. Most robots have 6 degrees of freedom. Each joint gives the robot one degree-of-freedom. Robots can have one arm or many.
The drive or actuator is the “engine” of the robot. An actuator is defined as “a mechanical device that produces motion.” An example of an actuator is an electric motor. Robots can have many different kinds of actuators. A solenoid is an electric motor that produces linear motion. They are typically used in switches that turn things off and on. Because robots require small and repeated adjustments in position, stepper motors are often used because they turn in precise, incremental steps. Another type of motor is the servomotor, which allows a 90-degree turn to either the right or the left. It is often used in remote control toys. Robots also use non-electric actuators. An actuator that uses oil is the hydraulic actuator. They are often used in place of an electric actuator when the robot is around sparks. Pneumatic actuators use gas to move. They are normally used in the part of the robot that picks up objects. This is because gas can be compressed preventing the robot from crushing what it is picking up. Robots have air muscles, which are pneumatic. They contract by thickening when pumped with air. They are made of soft plastic and rubber. Nitinol wire is a metal used to activate robotic parts. It is different from normal metals because it contracts up to 10% in length when heated with an electric current. This contraction is very strong.
The end-effector is connected to the end of the robot’s arm. Its purpose is to help the robot do its job. Examples of end-effectors are a gripper, a vacuum pump, tweezers, scalpel, or blowtorch. Robots can even be programmed to change end-effectors or have different end-effectors on each arm.
A sensor “measures a characteristic of the environment and makes a proportional electric signal.” The sensor then sends information back to the controller. This is how robots get information about their surroundings. Light sensors react by creating or changing an electric signal. If a robot is only supposed to react to a certain color, a filter is put over the sensor. Light sensors also allow robots to navigate. One way this works is with infrared light. The robot sends a beam of infrared light, which will bounce off obstacles and return to a light sensor on the robot. Feelers are touch sensors with contact switches and bump sensors. They tell a robot when it has made contact with something. Position sensors allow robots to learn how to do something. After leading it through the motions, the sensors in the robots joints remember and can repeat the exact movements. A robot can “sense” many things humans cannot. They can be programmed to see in the dark, detect radiation, or measure movement to quick for a human to see.

 Agricultural Robotics is the logical proliferation of automation technology into biosystems such as agriculture, forestry, green house, horticulture etc.
 In agriculture, the opportunities for robot-enhanced productivity are immense - and the robots are appearing on farms in various guises and in increasing numbers.
 Demeter (used for harvesting).
 Robot for weed control.
 Forester robot.
 Robot in horticulture.
 Fruit picking robot.
 Micro-flying robot
 Demeter has cameras on it that can detect the difference between the crop that has been cut and crop that hasn’t.
 The Demeter robot can also be driven by remote control.
Weed controller
 A four-wheel-drive weed-seeking robot is used to remove or destroy the weed.
 An intelligent hoe uses vision systems to identify the rows of crops, and steer itself accurately between them, considerably reducing the need for herbicides Weed identification is based on colour photography.
Forester robot
 This is a special type of robot used for cutting up of wood, tending trees, and pruning of X- mass tree and for harvesting pulp and hard wood and in the forests.
 A fearless mobile robot is helping scientists to monitor environmental changes in forests.
 The hi-tech Tarzan of the robot world, nicknamed Treebot, is the first of its kind to combine networked sensors, a web cam, and a wireless net link.
Robot in horticulture
 Robo is used in lawns to cut the grass the grass in lawns.
 In automatic mode, a fully charged Robo-mower can typically mow a lawn of 2500 to 3200 sq. ft., depending on the number of obstacles in its path, slopes, height of grass, humidity, etc.
Fruit picking robot
 The fruit picking robots are used to pick ripe fruit without damaging the branches or leaves of the tree.
 The robot can distinguish between fruit and leaves by using video image capturing. The camera is mounted on the robot arm, and the colours detected are compared with properties stored in memory.
Micro flying Robot
 Scientists from around the world are reverse-engineering the mechanics of insects as they design midget robots to scout battlefields, search for victims trapped in rubble,and record images in agricultural fields.
 Time and manual power is reduced.
 Fewer errors and at higher speeds.
 used in various fields like agriculture, medicine, mining, and space research.
 It can be sent to another planet to study their environmental conditions.
 The machines could easily work around trees, rocks, ponds and other obstacles.
 Driverless machines for agriculture is liability.
 Energy issues.
 Costly due to complex machinery.
 The opportunities for robot-enhanced productivity are immense and the robots are appearing on farms in various guises aThe jobs in agriculture are a drag, dangerous, require intelligence and quick, though highly repetitive decisions hence robots can be rightly substituted with human operator. nd in increasing numbers.
Current methods for off-road navigation using vehicle and terrain models to predict future vehicle response are limited by the accuracy of the models they use and can suffer if the world is unknown or if conditions change and the models become inaccurate .In this paper, an adaptive approach is presented that closes the loop around the vehicle predictions. This approach is applied to an autonomous vehicle known as field robots used in agriculture.
Agricultural Robotics is the logical proliferation of automation technology into biosystems such as agriculture, forestry, green house, horticulture etc. Presently a number of researchs are being done to increase their applications. Some of the scientist contributions are mobile robot, flying robot, forester robot, Demeter which are exclusively used for agriculture. A brief discussion is being done about the types of robots which increase the accuracy and precision of the agriculture.
Experiments are being done on newly proposed world’s smallest, weightless robot for using them as scouts in fields. Even in developing countries, such as India and Brazil, farmers are interested in using robots to tend fields of crops, pick fruit, or even maintain animal. At present time, agriculture robots must have human interaction in order to compensate for programming complexity issues.

The idea of applying robotics technology in agriculture is very new. In agriculture, the opportunities for robot-enhanced productivity are immense - and the robots are appearing on farms in various guises and in increasing numbers. We can expect the robots performing agricultural operations autonomously such as spraying and mechanical weed control, fruit picking, watching the farms day & night for an effective report, allowing farmers to reduce the environmental impact, increase precision and efficiency, and manage individual plants in novel ways.
The applications of instrumental robotics are spreading every day to cover further domains, as the opportunity of replacing human operators provides effective solutions with return on investment. This is specially important when the duties, that need be performed, are potentially harmful for the safety or the health of the workers, or when more conservative issues are granted by robotics.Heavy chemicals or drugs dispensers, manure or fertilizers spreaders, etc. are activities more and more concerned by the deployment of unmanned options.
How do conventional techniques differ with automized one?
Conventional techniques depend on human power for lifting, dragging, weed control, fruit picking. Humans are prone to work in hazardous environment while spraying chemicals and pesticides. The tractors compact the soil, as they are larger in weight. They cannot move in terrain conditions. These methods cannot identify the crop and soil in close proximity. In the case of automated agriculture (which uses field robots) is exemplified from above problems. Robots can work restlessly in all environments; all you have to do is set a program to perform the desired activities.
Although, large sized wheels are required in muddy soils, robots small sized wheels perform well. Robot scouts are employed to get detailed information about the crop such as the presence of diseases, weeds, insect infestations and other stress conditions. The lightweight of the robots is a major advantage, since they do not compact the soil as larger machinery does. Robo will Roam on fields to take care for plants.

 Demeter (used for harvesting).
 Robot for weed control.
 Forester robot.
 Robot in horticulture.
 Fruit picking robot.
 Micro-flying robot.
The robots mentioned here come under are Field robots and some are Mobile robots.
Field robots work with respect to environment and medium. They change themselves according to the required condition. Mobile robots are those which posses mobility withrespect a medium. The entire system moves with respect to environment.
 To provide access to hazard environment.
 Reduced operating costs due to lower cost of employing robots.
 Higher overall availability of robot workers (no lunch breaks or vacations)and many more.
 To complete large amount of work in less time.
3.1 DEMETER: Robot farmer:

"Labour requirements to grow and harvest the crops must be reduced through
automation". The main area of application of robots in agriculture is at the harvesting
stage. Demeter is a robot that can cut crops like wheat and alfalfa. It is named for the
Roman goddess of agriculture. Although, it may look like a normal harvester, Demetercan drive by itself without any human supervision. Unfortunately, people get tired and bored, and their productivity goes down. With a robotic harvester, however, it never getstired and can operate 24 hours a day.
Demeter has cameras on it that can detect the difference between thecrop that has been cut and crop that hasn’t. This information tells it where to drive, whereto put its cutter head, and when it has come to the end of a crop row so it can turn around.Demeter has a cruise control function. An operator can ride along with it. Demeter candrive, steer, and control the cutter head while the operator can focus on other tasks. TheDemeter robot can also be driven by remote control. Or, Demeter can be taught a path,and then follow that path using its on board sensors and computer control systems. It canfollow the path with an accuracy of up to 3 centimeters.
Whether you know or not evolution of robots has given a tremendous change in technology
The robot story
Although there may be several ways of defining what a robot is, we like the simple way A robot is a virtual or mechanical artificial agent. In practice, it is usually an electro which is guided by computer or electronic programming, and is thus able to do tasks on its own.
Robots don’t have to be anthropomorphic (like humans) or bestial (animal-like), but the bottom line is, they should be able to do things on there own, and adapt to changes in their environment.
Leonardo Da Vinci credited with the first design concept of a robot, around 1495. Williams Grey Walter’s Elmer and Elsie (1948) wee the first electronic autonomous robots that had touch and light sensors, two vacuum tubes basic analog circuit and could even recharge their own batteries. Shakey, the first mobile robot that had form by AI, was built by Stanford Research Institute Mobile robots have the capability to move around in their environment and are not fixed to one physical location. An example of a mobile robot that is in common use today is the automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV). An AGV is a mobile robot that follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision or lasers.
Mobile robots are also found in industry, military and security environments. They also appear as consumer products, for entertainment or to perform certain tasks like vacuum cleaning. Mobile robots are the focus of a great deal of current research and almost every major university has one or more labs that focus on mobile robot research.
Primarily, the four areas where robots have been most useful are manufacturing, space exploration, the military and the healthcare. Typically, in these sectors, task that are repetitive, hazardous, or needed precision have been taken over the robots.
Types of robot
Robots, today could be autonomous, semi autonomous or fully controlled, and can broadly be classified into following types.
1. Manipulators:
Robotic manipulators are typically static (fixed-base) robots that are typically used in manufacturing. These are routinely visible in most assembly line factories all over the world, but a sequential phone-switching system could be called a manipulators.
2. Mobile robot:
Mobile robots have the capability to move around in their environment and are not fixed to one physical location. These are usually platforms with wheels, track or legs, we have already told about automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV). And newer example is Honda’s AIBO (a
Humanoid that can run on speed of 6 kmph) and Sony’s AIBO look like a dog.
3. Telerobots:
Tele-operation is when a human operator controls a robot from a distance-of few feet or halfway across the solar system. The Sojourner robot, which explored the surface of the mars in 1957, is one such example. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been around since the Vietnam Wars, and UGVs (unmanned ground vehicles) and UUVs (unmanned underwater vehicles) have been since 1960’s.The mars robot ,Spirit and opportunity, have been working almost independently with timely teleported guidance from their NSA mentors since 2003
4. Virtual robot:
also know as bots or web-bots, these are actually software programming that simulates real robot or Function like human beings in the virtual world. WebCrawler’s and ELIZA – the chatterbot that simulates conversation between two people on the web –are example of virtual bots.
5: Shape –shifting robots:
Recently, platforms for robots have moved toward polymorphism. Serpentine robots are the best example of shape changing robots, Carnegie Mellon University’s biorobotic lab developed a snake –like modular robot called Uncle Sam that looks like s series of tin can and climbs poles and trees before it surveys the landscape with camera on its head.
6:Sawrm robots:
Inspired by colonies of insects such as ants and bees, researchers are modeling the behavior of swarms of thousands of tiny robots which together perform a useful task, such as finding something hidden, cleaning, or spying. Each robot is quite simple, but the emergent behavior of the swarm is more complex. The whole set of robots can be considered as one single distributed system, in the same way an ant colony can be considered a super organism, exhibiting swarm intelligence. The largest swarms
so far created include the iRobot swarm, the SRI/Mobile Robots CentiBots project] and the Open-source Micro-robotic Project swarm, which are being used to research collective behaviors. Swarms are also more resistant to failure. Whereas one large robot may fail and ruin a mission, a swarm can continue even if several robots fail. This could make them attractive for space exploration missions, where failure is normally extremely costly.
7. Nano robot:
Nanorobotics is the still largely hypothetical technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometer (10−9 meters). Also known as "nanobots" or "nanites", they would be constructed from molecular machines. So far, researchers have mostly produced only parts of these complex systems, such as bearings, sensors, and Synthetic molecular motors, but functioning robots have also been made such as the entrants to the Nanobot Robocup contest. Researchers also hope to be able to create entire robots as small as viruses or bacteria, which could perform tasks on a tiny scale. Possible applications include micro surgery (on the level of individual cells), utility fog, manufacturing, weaponry and cleaning.

An embedded system is a special-purpose system in which the compute is completely encapsulated by or dedicated to the device or system it controls. Unlike a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer, an embedded system performs one or a few predefined tasks, usually with very specific requirements. Since the system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it, reducing the size and cost of the product. Embedded systems are often mass –produced, benefiting from economies of scale.
Personal digital assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers are generally considered embedded devices because of the nature of their hardware design, even though they are more expandable in software terms. This line of definition continues to blur as devises expand. With the introduction of the OQO Model 2 with the windows XP operating system and ports such as a USB port- both features usually belong to “general purpose computers”, -the line of nomenclature blurs even more.
Physically, embedded system ranges from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 player, to large stationary installations like traffic lights, factory controllers, or the system controlling nuclear power plants.
In terms of complexity embedded systems can range from very simple with a single microcontroller chip, to very complex with multiple units, peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure
Examples of Embedded Systems:
• Avionics, such as inertial guidance systems, flight control hardware/software and other integrated systems in aircraft and missiles
• Cellular telephones and telephone switches
• Engine controllers and antilock brake controllers for automobiles
• Home automation products, such as thermostats, air conditioners, sprinklers, and security monitoring systems
• Handheld calculators
• Handheld computers
• Household appliances, including microwave ovens, washing machines, television sets, DVD players and recorders
• Medical equipment
• Personal digital assistant
• Videogame consoles
• Computer peripherals such as routers and printers.
• Industrial controllers for remote machine operation
INTRODUCTION: As the need for automated system is increasing rapidly, the demand for robots also increased. This project is aimed to design an automated system. this project is to design to change its direction and movement when obstacle detected. The main objective of this project is to design an android (robot) which proposes a new means of Security and automated system. Generally, whenever the robot moving with forward direction. The wireless webcam is connected to top of the robot if there is any obstacle is exist opposite to the robot it change its direction. This project is designed around a microcontroller as a Control unit. According to this project, the robot is designed which can be controlled automatically. Here robot is a physical structure which moves with the help of its wheels. This robot is made to continuously sense obstacle by the webcam which is connected to the microcontroller. If any obstacle is detected the motor which is connected to microcontroller its stop to rotate. Here we using IR transmitter and IR receiver are connected to microcontroller unit is used to transmit the information to PC through VGA card. This project is to design to change its direction and movement when obstacle is detected.
A Micro controller consists of a powerful CPU tightly coupled with memory ,various I/O interfaces such as serial port, parallel port timer or counter, interrupt controller, data acquisition interfaces-Analog to Digital converter, Digital to Analog converter, integrated on to a single silicon chip. If a system is developed with a microprocessor, the designer has to go for external memory such as RAM,ROM,EPROM and Peripherals. But controller is provided all these facilities on a single chip. Development of a Micro controller reduces PCB size and cost of design.
One of the major differences between a Microprocessor and a Micro controller it that a controller often deals with bits not bytes as in the real world application.
Intel has introduced a family of Micro controllers called the MCS-51.
As farms grow in size, together with the size of the equipment used on them, there is a need for ways to automate processes, previously performed by the farmer himself, such as controlling the fields for pests. These tasks are perfectly suited for autonomous robots, as they often require numerous repetitions over a long period of time and over a large area. The use of robots is a rather new development as most of the existing solutions for automatic supervision, is designed for standard farm equipment, such as tractors, combines and pesticide sprayers. One such solution is agricultural robot.
In most cases a small agricultural robot would be ineffective in performing farming jobs, as these often require a large quantity of materials, either to put into the ground, such as seeds or fertilisers, or to take from the field during harvest. But when dealing with monitoring and mapping of fields or precision spraying of pesticides, a smaller robot is ideal, as it is more gentle on the crops but also to the ground. This is due to the lower weight compared to a tractor, causing much lesser soil compaction. The degree of soil compaction is important to consider, especially when dealing with monitoring and mapping as this is often performed multiple times throughout the year, as soil compaction can cause a number of problems, such as reduced crop growth and denitrification.
Agriculture involves the systematic production of food, feed, fibre, and other goods. In addition to producing food for humans and animals, agriculture also produces cut flowers, timber, fertilizers, animal hides, leather, and industrial chemicals. Food is anything made up of carbohydrates, fats, water or a protein that’s eaten by animals or people for nutrition or pleasure. Fodder is food made from vegetable or animal bi-products that is for animals including livestock, pigs, sheep, and chicken. Fibre is a class of material including cloth, cotton, linen, jute, flax, ramie, and sisal. Agriculture comes from two Latin words: ager which means a field culture which means cultivation, the tillage of the soil. A lot of the world’s workers (42%) are involved in agriculture in some way.
A robot is a machine that can be programmed and reprogrammed to do certain tasks and usually consists of a manipulator such as a claw, hand, or tool attached to a mobile body or a stationary platform. Autonomous robots work completely under the control of a computer program. They often use sensors to gather data about their surroundings in order to navigate. Tele-controlled robots work under the control of humans and/or computer programs. Remote-controlled robots are controlled by humans with a controller such as a joystick or other hand-held device.[1] The word ‘robot’ came from the Czech word ‘robota’, which means forced labor, or work. It was first used in the play R.U.R., Rossum’s Universal Robots, written in 1921 by a Czech playwright named Karel Capeck. Isaac Asimov was the first person to use the term ‘robotics in “Runaround,” a short storypublished in 1942.

An Agricultural Robot is a robot deployed for agricultural purposes. The main area of application of robots in agriculture is at the harvesting stage. Fruit picking robots and sheep shearing robots are designed to replace human labour. The agricultural industry is behind other complementary industries in using robots because the sort of jobs involved in agriculture are not straightforward, and many repetitive tasks are not exactly the same every time.
Agricultural Robot tracks the migration of agriculture to incorporate intelligent machines used in farming, with agricultural robot articles, agricultural robot videos, and conversation you may wish to join in about emerging farming automation.
Figure 2.1: Block Diagram of Agricultural Robot
The functional block diagram of Agricultural Robot is as shown in Figure 2.1and the list of components can be discussed below
1. AT89C52 micro controller
2. IC ULN 2003
3. 16*2 dot matrix display
4. 7805 voltage regulator
5. IN 4007 diodes - 2 no’s
6. 100 uf capacitors - 2 no’s
7. 10 uf / 16 V capacitor - 1 no
8. 33 pf capacitors - 2 no’s
9. 1.1 kΩ resistors - 2 no’s
10. 8.2 k Ω resistor - 1 no
11. BC 557 pnp transistors - 4 no’s
12. Water sprinkler motor
13. Seed sowing motor
14. Robot driving motors - 2 no’s
16. DIP switch - 1 no’s
17. SIP
18. 230V Transformer

The Power Supply is a Primary requirement for any system to start. The required DC power supply for the base unit as well as for the recharging unit is derived from the mains line. For this purpose centre tapped secondary of 12V-012V transformer is used. From this transformer we getting 5V power supply. The +5V output is a regulated output and it is designed using 7805 positive voltage regulator. This is a 3 Pin voltage regulator, can deliver current up to 800 milliamps.
Rectification is a process of rendering an alternating current or voltage into a unidirectional one. The component used for rectification is called ‘Rectifier’. A rectifier permits current to flow only during positive half cycles of the applied AC voltage. Thus, pulsating DC is obtained .To obtain smooth DC power additional filter circuits required. The circuit diagram for power supply is as shown in Figure 2.3.
Circuit diagram:
Figure 2.2: circuit diagram of power supply
A diode can be used as rectifier. There are various types of diodes. However, semiconductor diodes are very popularly used as rectifiers. A semiconductor diode is a solid-state device consisting of two elements is being an electron emitter or cathode, the other an electron collector or anode. Since electrons in a semiconductor diode can flow in one direction only-from emitter to collector-the diode provides the unilateral conduction necessary for rectification.
The rectified Output is filtered for smoothening the DC, for this purpose capacitor is used in the filter circuit. The filter capacitors are usually connected in parallel with the rectifier output and the load. The AC can pass through a capacitor but DC cannot, the ripples are thus limited and the output becomes smoothened. When the voltage across the capacitor plates tends to rise, it stores up energy back into voltage and current. Thus, the fluctuation in the output voltage is reduced considerable.
The transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one electrical circuit to another electrical circuit through the medium of magnetic field and without a change in the frequency. The electric circuit which receives energy from the supply mains is called primary winding and the other circuit which delivers electric energy to the load is called the secondary winding.
Figure 2.3: 230V Transformer
This is a very useful device, indeed. With it, we can easily multiply or divide voltage and current in AC circuits. Indeed, the transformer has made long-distance transmission of electric power a practical reality, as AC voltage can be "stepped up" and current "stepped down" for reduced wire resistance power losses along power lines connecting generating stations with loads. At either end (both the generator and at the loads), voltage levels are reduced by transformers for safer operation and less expensive equipment. A transformer that increases voltage from primary to secondary (more secondary winding turns than primary winding turns) is called a step-up transformer. Conversely, a transformer designed to do just the opposite is called a step-down transformer. The transformer is as shown in figure 2.4.
This is a step-down transformer, as evidenced by the low turn count of the primary winding and the high turn count of the secondary. As a step-down unit, this transformer converts high-voltage, low-current power into low-voltage, high-current power. The larger-gauge wire used in the secondary winding is necessary due to the increase in current. The primary winding, which doesn't have to conduct as much current, may be made of smaller-gauge wire.

 Compatible with MCS-51 Products.
 8K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory.
 Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles.
 Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz.
 Three-level Program Memory Lock.
 256 x 8-Bit Internal RAM.
 32 Programmable I/O Lines.
 Three 16-bit Timer/Counters.
 Eight Interrupt Sources.
 Programmable Serial Channel.
 Low Power Idle and Power Down Modes
The microcontroller generic part number actually includes a whole family of microcontrollers that have numbers ranging from 8031to 8751 and are available in N-Channel Metal Oxide Silicon (NMOS) and Complementary Metal Oxide Silicon (CMOS) construction in a variety of package types.
Pin Diagram
AT89C52 microcontroller is a 4Kbytes of Flash Programmable and Erasable Read Only Memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard MCS-51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C52 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications
 Where AI meets the real world.
What is a Robot ?
 “A re-programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move
material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed
motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.”
A robot must have the following essential characteristics:
 Mobility: It possesses some form of mobility.
 Programmability: implying computational or symbol- manipulative capabilities that a designer can combine as desired (a robot is a computer). It can be programmed to accomplish a large variety of tasks. After being programmed, it operates automatically.
 Sensors: on or around the device that are able to sense the environment and give useful feedback to the device
 Mechanical capability: enabling it to act on its environment rather than merely function as a data processing or computational device (a robot is a machine); and
 Flexibility: it can operate using a range of programs and manipulates and transport materials in a variety of ways.
Isaac Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics
 Law Zero A robot may not injure humanity, or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.
 First Law A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
 Second Law A robot must obey orders given it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
 Third Law A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
Construction & Working of the Robot
Mechanical platforms- the hardware base Sensors
Driving mechanisms
Power supplies
Electronic Controls
Microcontroller systems
R/C Servos
Driving High-Current Loads from Logic
 Sensors
Sensors are the parts that act like senses and can detect objects or things like heat and light and convert the object information into symbols or in analog or digital form so that computers understand. And then Robots react according to information provided by the sensory system
Vision Sensor
 Camera
 Frame grabber
 Image processing unit
Driving mechanisms
Power supplies
Driving High-Current Loads from Logic
Microcontroller systems
 Speed
 Size
 Memory
 A robot system architecture
 Artificial Intelligence
What is artificial intelligence?
It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs
 Can a machine think?
Appling Robots
 Future
 Artificial neural networks
 Robots which train themselves
 Advantages
 Disadvantages
 Where gone Asimov’s law?
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