31-12-2009, 05:46 PM
Free Space Optics (FSO) or Optical Wireless, refers to the transmission of modulated visible or infrared (IR) beams through the air to obtain optical communications. Like fiber, Free Space Optics (FSO) uses lasers to transmit data, but instead of enclosing the data stream in a glass fiber, it is transmitted through the air. It is a secure, cost-effective alternative to other wireless connectivity options. This form of delivering communication has a lot of compelling advantages.
Data rates comparable to fiber transmission can be carried with very low error rates, while the extremely narrow laser beam widths ensure that it is possible to co-locate multiple tranceivers without risk of mutual interference in a given location. FSO has roles to play as primary access madium and backup technology. It could also be the solution for high speed residential access. Though this technology sprang into being, its applications are wide and many. It indeed is the technology of the future...
Free Space Optics (FSO) communications, also called Free Space Photonics (FSP) or Optical Wireless, refers to the transmission of modulated visible or infrared (IR) beams through the atmosphere to obtain optical communications. Like fiber, Free Space Optics (FSO) uses lasers to transmit data, but instead of enclosing the data stream in a glass fiber, it is transmitted through the air. Free Space Optics (FSO) works on the same basic principle as Infrared television remote controls, wireless keyboards or wireless PalmÃ‚Â® devices.
HISTORY OF FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO)
The engineering maturity of Free Space Optics (FSO) is often underestimated, due to a misunderstanding of how long Free Space Optics (FSO) systems have been under development. Historically, Free Space Optics (FSO) or optical wireless communications was first demonstrated by Alexander Graham Bell in the late nineteenth century (prior to his demonstration of the telephone!). Bellâ„¢s Free Space Optics (FSO) experiment converted voice sounds into telephone signals and transmitted them between receivers through free air space along a beam of light for a distance of some 600 feet. Calling his experimental device the photophone, Bell considered this optical technology â€œ and not the telephone â€œ his preeminent invention because it did not require wires for transmission.
Although Bellâ„¢s photophone never became a commercial reality, it demonstrated the basic principle of optical communications. Essentially all of the engineering of todayâ„¢s Free Space Optics (FSO) or free space optical communications systems was done over the past 40 years or so, mostly for defense applications. By addressing the principal engineering challenges of Free Space Optics (FSO), this aerospace/defense activity established a strong foundation upon which todayâ„¢s commercial laser-based Free Space Optics (FSO) systems are based.
HOW FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) WORKS
Free Space Optics (FSO) transmits invisible, eye-safe light beams from one "telescope" to another using low power infrared lasers in the teraHertz spectrum. The beams of light in Free Space Optics (FSO) systems are transmitted by laser light focused on highly sensitive photon detector receivers. These receivers are telescopic lenses able to collect the photon stream and transmit digital data containing a mix of Internet messages, video images, radio signals or computer files.Commercially available systems offer capacities in the range of 100 Mbps to 2.5 Gbps, and demonstration systems report data rates as high as 160 Gbps.
Free Space Optics (FSO) systems can function over distances of several kilometers. As long as there is a clear line of sight between the source and the destination, and enough transmitter power, Free Space Optics (FSO) communication is possible.
FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) TECHNOLOGY
Lasers are one of the most significant inventions of the 20th century - they can be found in many modern products, from CD players to fiber-optic networks. The word laser is actually an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emiission of Radiation. Although stimulated emission was first predicted by Albert Einstein near the beginning of the 20th century, the first working laser was not demonstrated until 1960 when Theodore Maiman did so using a ruby. Maiman's laser was predated by the maser - another acronym, this time for Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. A maser is very similar to a laser except the photons generated by a maser are of a longer wavelength outside the visible and/or infrared spectrum.
A laser generates light, either visible or infrared, through a process known as stimulated emission. To understand stimulated emission, understanding two basic concepts is necessary. The first is absorption which occurs when an atom absorbs energy or photons. The second is emission which occurs when an atom emits photons. Emission occurs when an atom is in an excited or high energy state and returns to a stable or ground state â€œ when this occurs naturally it is called spontaneous emission because no outside trigger is required. Stimulated emission occurs when an already excited atom is bombarded by yet another photon causing it to release that photon along with the photon which previously excited it. Photons are particles, or more properly quanta, of light and a light beam is made up of what can be thought of as a stream of photons.
A basic laser uses a mirrored chamber or cavity to reflect light waves so they reinforce each other. An excitable substance â€œ gas, liquid, or solid like the original ruby laser â€œ is contained within the cavity and determines the wavelength of the resulting laser beam. Through a process called pumping, energy is introduced to the cavity exciting the atoms within and causing a population inversion. A population inversion is when there are more excited atoms than grounded atoms which then leads to stimulated emission. The released photons oscillate back and forth between the mirrors of the cavity, building energy and causing other atoms to release more photons. One of the mirrors allows some of the released photons to escape the cavity resulting in a laser beam emitting from one end of the cavity.
TERRESTRIAL LASER COMMUNICATIONS CHALLENGES
Fog substantially attenuates visible radiation, and it has a similar affect on the near-infrared wavelengths that are employed in laser communications. Similar to the case of rain attenuation with RF wireless, fog attenuation is not a show-stopper for optical wireless, because the optical link can be engineered such that, for a large fraction of the time, an acceptable power will be received even in the presence of heavy fog. Laser communication systems can be enhanced to yield even greater availabilities by combining them with RF systems.
Laser communications systems that employ multiple, spatially diverse transmitters and large receive optics will eliminate interference concerns from objects such as birds.
Pointing stability in commercial laser communications systems is achieved by one of two methods. The simpler, less costly method is to widen the beam divergence so that if either end of the link moves the receiver will still be within the beam. The second method is to employ a beam tracking system. While more costly, such systems allow for a tighter beam to be transmitted allowing for higher security and longer distance transmissions.
Performance of many laser communications systems is adversely affected by scintillation on bright sunny days. Through a large aperture receiver, widely spaced transmitters, finely tuned receive filtering, and automatic gain control, downtime due to scintillation can be avoided.
FSO: WIRELESS, AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT
Unlike radio and microwave systems, Free Space Optics (FSO) is an optical technology and no spectrum licensing or frequency coordination with other users is required, interference from or to other systems or equipment is not a concern, and the point-to-point laser signal is extremely difficult to intercept, and therefore secure. Data rates comparable to optical fiber transmission can be carried by Free Space Optics (FSO) systems with very low error rates, while the extremely narrow laser beam widths ensure that there is almost no practical limit to the number of separate Free Space Optics (FSO) links that can be installed in a given location.
HOW FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) CAN HELP YOU
FSOâ„¢s freedom from licensing and regulation translates into ease, speed and low cost of deployment. Since Free Space Optics (FSO) transceivers can transmit and receive through windows, it is possible to mount Free Space Optics (FSO) systems inside buildings, reducing the need to compete for roof space, simplifying wiring and cabling, and permitting Free Space Optics (FSO) equipment to operate in a very favorable environment. The only essential requirement for Free Space Optics (FSO) or optical wireless transmission is line of sight between the two ends of the link.
For Metro Area Network (MAN) providers the last mile or even feet can be the most daunting. Free Space Optics (FSO) networks can close this gap and allow new customers access to high-speed MANâ„¢s. Providers also can take advantage of the reduced risk of installing an Free Space Optics (FSO) network which can later be redeployed.
THE MARKET. WHY FSO BREAKING THE BANDWIDTH BOTTLENECK
Why FSO The global telecommunications network has seen massive expansion over the last few years. First came the tremendous growth of the optical fiber long-haul, wide-area network (WAN), followed by a more recent emphasis on metropolitan area networks (MANs). Meanwhile, local area networks (LANs) and gigabit ethernet ports are being deployed with a comparable growth rate. In order for this tremendous network capacity to be exploited, and for the users to be able to utilize the broad array of new services becoming available, network designers must provide a flexible and cost-effective means for the users to access the telecommunications network. Presently, however, most local loop network connections are limited to 1.5 Mbps (a T1 line). As a consequence, there is a strong need for a high-bandwidth bridge (the last mile or first mile) between the LANs and the MANs or WANs.
A recent New York Times article reported that more than 100 million miles of optical fiber was laid around the world in the last two years, as carriers reacted to the Internet phenomenon and end usersâ„¢ insatiable demand for bandwidth. The sheer scale of connecting whole communities, cities and regions to that fiber optic cable or backbone is something not many players understood well. Despite the huge investment in trenching and optical cable, most of the fiber remains unlit, 80 to 90% of office, commercial and industrial buildings are not connected to fiber, and transport prices are dropping dramatically.
Free Space Optics (FSO) systems represent one of the most promising approaches for addressing the emerging broadband access market and its last mile bottleneck. Free Space Optics (FSO) systems offer many features, principal among them being low start-up and operational costs, rapid deployment, and high fiber-like bandwidths due to the optical nature of the technology
BROADBAND BANDWIDTH ALTERNATIVES
Access technologies in general use today include telco-provisioned copper wire, wireless Internet access, broadband RF/microwave, coaxial cable and direct optical fiber connections (fiber to the building; fiber to the home). Telco/PTT telephone networks are still trapped in the old Time Division Multiplex (TDM) based network infrastructure that rations bandwidth to the customer in increments of 1.5 Mbps (T-1) or 2.024 Mbps (E-1). DSL penetration rates have been throttled by slow deployment and the pricing strategies of the PTTs. Cable modem access has had more success in residential markets, but suffers from security and capacity problems, and is generally conditional on the user subscribing to a package of cable TV channels. Wireless Internet access is still slow, and the tiny screen renders it of little appeal for web browsing.
Broadband RF/microwave systems have severe limitations and are losing favor. The radio spectrum is a scarce and expensive licensed commodity, sold or leased to the highest bidder, or on a first-come first-served basis, and all too often, simply unavailable due to congestion. As building owners have realized the value of their roof space, the price of roof rights has risen sharply. Furthermore, radio equipment is not inexpensive, the maximum data rates achievable with RF systems are low compared to optical fiber, and communications channels are insecure and subject to interference from and to other systems (a major constraint on the use of radio systems).
FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) ADVANTAGES
Free space optical (FSO) systems offers a flexible networking solution that delivers on the promise of broadband. Only free space optics or Free Space Optics (FSO) provides the essential combination of qualities required to bring the traffic to the optical fiber backbone â€œ virtually unlimited bandwidth, low cost, ease and speed of deployment. Freedom from licensing and regulation translates into ease, speed and low cost of deployment. Since Free Space Optics (FSO) optical wireless transceivers can transmit and receive through windows, it is possible to mount Free Space Optics (FSO) systems inside buildings, reducing the need to compete for roof space, simplifying wiring and cabling, and permitting the equipment to operate in a very favorable environment. The only essential for Free Space Optics (FSO) is line of sight between the two ends of the link.
Freedom from licensing and regulation leads to ease, speed and low cost of deployment.
Since FSO units can receive and transmit through windows it reduces the need to compete for roof space, simplifying wiring and cabling.
Only need is the line of sight between the two ends of the link.
Providers take advantage of the reduced risk in installing FSO equipment, which can even be re-deployed.
Zero chances of network failure.
Virtually unlimited bandwidth.
FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) SECURITY
Security is an important element of data transmission, irrespective of the network topology. It is especially important for military and corporate applications. Building a network on the SONAbeamâ€žÂ¢ platform is one of the best ways to ensure that data transmission between any two points is completely secure. Its focused transmission beam foils jammers and eavesdroppers and enhances security. Moreover, fSONA systems can use any signal-scrambling technology that optical fiber can use.
The common perception of wireless is that it offers less security than wireline connections. In fact, Free Space Optics (FSO) is far more secure than RF or other wireless-based transmission technologies for several reasons:
Free Space Optics (FSO) laser beams cannot be detected with spectrum analyzers or RF meters
Free Space Optics (FSO) laser transmissions are optical and travel along a line of sight path that cannot be intercepted easily. It requires a matching Free Space Optics (FSO) transceiver carefully aligned to complete the transmission. Interception is very difficult and extremely unlikely
The laser beams generated by Free Space Optics (FSO) systems are narrow and invisible, making them harder to find and even harder to intercept and crack
Data can be transmitted over an encrypted connection adding to the degree of security available in Free Space Optics (FSO) network transmissions
Metro network extensions â€œ FSO is used to extend existing metropolitan area fiberings to connect new networks from outside.
Last mile access â€œ FSO can be used in high-speed links to connect end users with ISPs.
Enterprise connectivity - The ease in which FSO can be installed makes them a solution for interconnecting LAN segments, housed in buildings separated by public streets.
Fiber backup - FSO may be deployed in redundant links to backup fiber in place of a second fiber link.
Backhaul â€œ Used to carry cellular telephone traffic from antenna towers back to facilities into the public switched telephone networks.
FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) CHALLENGES
The advantages of free space optical wireless or Free Space Optics (FSO) do not come without some cost. When light is transmitted through optical fiber, transmission integrity is quite predictable â€œ barring unforseen events such as backhoes or animal interference. When light is transmitted through the air, as with Free Space Optics (FSO) optical wireless systems, it must contend with a a complex and not always quantifiable subject - the atmosphere.
FOG AND FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO)
Fog substantially attenuates visible radiation, and it has a similar affect on the near-infrared wavelengths that are employed in Free Space Optics (FSO) systems. Note that the effect of fog on Free Space Optics (FSO) optical wireless radiation is entirely analogous to the attenuation â€œ and fades â€œ suffered by RF wireless systems due to rainfall. Similar to the case of rain attenuation with RF wireless, fog attenuation is not a show-stopper for Free Space Optics (FSO) optical wireless, because the optical link can be engineered such that, for a large fraction of the time, an acceptable power will be received even in the presence of heavy fog. Free Space Optics (FSO) optical wireless-based communication systems can be enhanced to yield even greater availabilities.
PHYSICAL OBSTRUCTIONS AND FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO)
Free Space Optics (FSO) products which have widely spaced redundant transmitters and large receive optics will all but eliminate interference concerns from objects such as birds. On a typical day, an object covering 98% of the receive aperture and all but 1 transmitter; will not cause an Free Space Optics (FSO) link to drop out. Thus birds are unlikely to have any impact on Free Space Optics (FSO) transmission.
FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) POINTING STABILITY â€œ BUILDING SWAY, TOWER MOVEMENT
Fied pointed Free Space Optics (FSO) systems are designed to be capable of handling the vast majority of movement found in deployments on buildings. The combination of effective beam divergence and a well matched receive Field-of-View (FOV) provide for an extremely robust fixed pointed Free Space Optics (FSO) system suitable for most deployments. Fixed-pointed Free Space Optics (FSO) systems are generally preferred over actively-tracked Free Space Optics (FSO) systems due to their lower cost.
SCINTILLATION AND FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO)
Performance of many Free Space Optics (FSO) optical wireless systems is adversely affected by scintillation on bright sunny days; the effects of which are typically reflected in BER statistics. Some optical wireless products have a unique combination of large aperture receiver, widely spaced transmitters, finely tuned receive filtering, and automatic gain control characteristics. In addition, certain optical wireless systems also apply a clock recovery phase-lock-loop time constant that all but eliminate the affects of atmospheric scintillation and jitter transference.
SOLAR INTERFERENCE AND FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO)
Solar interference in Free Space Optics (FSO) free space optical systems operating at 1550 nm can be combatted in two ways. The first is a long-pass optical filter window used to block all optical wavelengths below 850 nm from entering the system; the second is an optical narrowband filter proceeding the receive detector used to filter all but the wavelength actually used for intersystem communications. To handle off-axis solar energy, two spatial filters have been implemented in SONAbeam systems, allowing them to operate unaffected by solar interference that is more than 1.5 degrees off-axis.
FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) COMPARISONS
Free space optical communications is now established as a viable approach for addressing the emerging broadband access market and its last mile bottleneck.. These robust systems, which establish communication links by transmitting laser beams directly through the atmosphere, have matured to the point that mass-produced models are now available. Optical wireless systems offer many features, principal among them being low start-up and operational costs, rapid deployment, and high fiber-like bandwidths. These systems are compatible with a wide range of applications and markets, and they are sufficiently flexible as to be easily implemented using a variety of different architectures. Because of these features, market projections indicate healthy growth for optical wireless sales. Although simple to deploy, optical wireless transceivers are sophisticated devices.
The many sub-systems require a multi-faceted approach to system engineering that balances the variables to produce the optimum mix. A working knowledge of the issues faced by an optical wireless system engineer provides a foundation for understanding the differences between the various systems available. This paper aims to examine the many elements considered by the system engineer when designing a product so that the buyer can ask those same questions about the systems they are evaluating for purchase.
Currently available Free Space Optics (FSO) hardware can be classified into two categories depending on the operating wavelength â€œ systems that operate near 800 nm and those that operate near 1550 nm. There are compelling reasons for selecting 1550 nm Free Space Optics (FSO) systems due to laser eye safety, reduced solar background radiation, and compatibility with existing technology infrastructure.
Laser beams with wavelengths in the range of 400 to 1400 nm emit light that passes through the cornea and lens and is focused onto a tiny spot on the retina while wavelengths above 1400 nm are absorbed by the cornea and lens, and do not focus onto the retina, as illustrated in Figure 1. It is possible to design eye-safe laser transmitters at both the 800 nm and 1550 nm wavelengths but the allowable safe laser power is about fifty times higher at 1550 nm. This factor of fifty is important as it provides up to 17 dB additional margin, allowing the system to propagate over longer distances, through heavier attenuation, and to support higher data rates.
Carrier-class Free Space Optics (FSO) systems must be designed to accommodate heavy atmospheric attenuation, particularly by fog. Although longer wavelengths are favored in haze and light fog, under conditions of very low visibility this long-wavelength advantage does not apply. However, the fact that 1550 nm-based systems are allowed to transmit up to 50 times more eye-safe power will translate into superior penetration of fog or any other atmospheric attenuator.
There are a number of factors to consider when examining the effectiveness of the receiver in an FSO system; these include the type of detector used, the sensitivity rating and size of the detector, the size and design of the receiver optics, and the operating wavelength itself. In order to correctly assess the efficiency of the overall system, one must also take into account the number and power of the lasers being used to generate the signal.
Types of optical detectors used in FSO equipment come in two flavors: PIN and APD. The PIN detector is a lower cost detector that has no internal gain, while the APD is a more expensive but also more sensitive detector with internal gain. The Benefits of using APD over PIN technology will vary, but real-world results indicate the benefits to be an improvement in sensitivity of approximately 4x that of a PIN detector. Although at first glance it would seem that systems using APD detectors should have a performance advantage; however, the performance of a system must also take into consideration the transmit characteristics. As an example, the SONAbeam155-M uses the lower-cost PIN detectors but because it produces 20-40 times the laser power of competing systems the SONAbeam155-M is still 5-10 times more effective than those systems utilizing APD based receivers. Thus, the SONAbeam is a much more powerful system, which allows it to outperform other products at the same distance, under the same weather conditions.
The size of the receiver optics is also important; a larger area receive optic contributes to reducing errors due to scintallation. Scintillation is atmospheric turbulence due to solar loading and natural convection, causing temporally and spatially varying refractive index changes in the air. As a laser beam propagates through the atmosphere, there is a time-varying intensity at the receiver due to this phenomenon; this is referred to as 'scintillation'. This is quite similar to the apparent twinkling of the stars or distant city lights, which is due to the same effect. The result is that an FSO communications receiver can experience error bursts due to surges and fades in the receive signal strength. One way to combat this scintillation effect, and thus improve the error-rate performance, is to use a large aperture receiver. A collecting aperture that is much larger than the spatial scale of the scintillation provides an averaging effect of the localized surges and fades, thus improving the error rate. This large-aperture approach is more effective for scintillation reduction than multiple smaller apertures, which perform less averaging at each lens. Another way to mitigate the effects of scintillation is to use multiple transmitters, each of which takes a slightly different path through the atmosphere, which also contributes an averaging effect. The net result is that a properly designed system can defeat scintillation impairments.
The operating wavelength of an FSO system also contributes to the performance of the receiver. It is generally true that high-quality photodiodes at both 800nm and 1550nm achieve comparable quantum efficiencies. However, longer wavelengths enjoy an advantage in the receiver due to their lower photon energies. Specifically, a 1550nm photon has half the energy of a 800nm photon. Consequently, for the same total energy (i.e. Watts of power), a beam of 1550nm light has twice the number of photons as a beam of 800nm light. This results in twice the photoelectrons (photocurrent) from the receiver photodiode. Since a certain minimum number of photoelectrons is required to detect an optical pulse, a pulse at 1550nm can be detected with ~ 3 dB less optical power. Hence, 1550nm has a fundamental 3 dB advantage over 800nm in receiver sensitivity.
PERFORMANCE â€œ TRANSMIT POWER & RECEIVER SENSITIVITY
Free Space Optics (FSO) products performance can be characterized by four main parameters (for a given data rate):
Â¢ Total transmitted power
Â¢ Transmitting beamwidth
Â¢ Receiving optics collecting area
Â¢ Receiver sensitivity
High transmitted power may be achieved by using erbium doped fiber amplifiers, or by non-coherently combining multiple lower cost semiconductor lasers. Narrow transmitting beamwidth (a.k.a. high antenna gain) can be achieved on a limited basis for fixed-pointed units, with the minimum beamwidth large enough to accommodate building sway and wind loading. Much narrower beams can be achieved with an actively pointed system, which includes an angle tracker and fast steering mirror (or gimbal). Ideally the angle tracker operates on the communication beam, so no separate tracking beacon is required. Larger receiving optics captures a larger fraction of the total transmitted power, up to terminal cost, volume and weight limitations. And high receiver sensitivity can be achieved by using small, low-capacitance photodetectors, circuitry which compensates for detector capacitance, or using detectors with internal gain mechanisms, such as APDs. APD receivers can provide 5-10 dB improvement over PIN detectors, albeit with increased parts cost and a more complex high voltage bias circuit. These four parameters allow links to travel over longer distance, penetrate lower visibility fog, or both.
In addition, Free Space Optics (FSO) receivers must be designed to be tolerant to scintillation, i.e. have rapid response to changing signal levels and high dynamic range in the front end, so that the fluctuations can be removed in the later stage limiting amplifier or AGC. Poorly designed Free Space Optics (FSO) receivers may have a constant background error rate due to scintillation, rather than perfect zero error performance.
FIXED-POINTING OR ACTIVE-POINTING
Another element of Free Space Optics (FSO) system design that must be considered by a prudent buyer is the challenge of maintaining sufficiently accurate pointing stability. A number of Free Space Optics (FSO) systems employ an active pointing-stabilization approach, which represents an effective approach for addressing this challenge. However, the cost, complexity, and reliability issues associated with active-pointing approach can be avoided in some applications (particularly for shorter ranges and lower data rates) by utilizing the fixed-pointed approach schematically shown in the figure.
According to this approach, the transmitted beam is broadened significantly beyond its near-perfect minimum beam divergence angle, and the receiver field of view is broadened to a comparable extent. The broadening of the transmitted beam and receiver field of view leads to large pointing/alignment tolerances and a very low probability of building motion being of sufficient magnitude to take the link down. Well engineered hardware exploits this approach of designing for loose alignment tolerances. Therefore, it is possible to perform initial alignment of the transceivers at opposite ends of the link during installation and then leave them unattended for many years of reliable service.
Note that this approach is facilitated for systems operating at wavelengths > 1400 nm, because the higher allowable eye-safe powers at such wavelengths allow the transmitted beam to be significantly broadened spatially while still maintaining an adequate intensity at the receiver. Of primary importance to prospective buyers will be selecting the right system for the situation.
Systems are designed, engineered and tested to ensure exceptional reliability. Building on their extensive experience in laser communications systems for military and space applications, our design engineers have ensured that critical sub-systems are manufactured using high-reliability components. Component reliability is further ensured by rigorous vendor qualification and incoming inspection procedures.
Our equipment reliability analysis is performed using the stringent Bellcore/Telcordia guidelines applicable to carrier equipment. This is further backed up by exhaustive qualification testing in our in-house test facilities, where subsystems are severely stressed and operational performance is validated at extremes ranging from -50Ã‚Â°C to 75Ã‚Â°C. The combination of active laser cooling, high-reliability components, sealed housings and rugged mechanical design enables us to offer carriers superior products with outstanding communications performance and a rated service life of 15 years.
Built for Dependability and Longevity
Depending on their bandwidth and operating range, NAbeam™ systems are designed with two-, four- or eight-fold redundancy of lasers, laser drivers, laser coolers and cooler controllers. SONAbeam's™ environmentally sealed cast-aluminum exterior housings, unique in the market, are impervious to water, sun and other environmental hazards. fSONA's rugged transceiver mounting structures maintain pointing accuracy through Class 1 hurricanes of 120 km/hr, and survive Class 2 hurricanes of 160 km/hr.
COST OF DEPLOYEMENT
Higher performances with little extra cost penalty, provides the best value. The key factor that affects the cost are system design, minimization of manual labour and bulk manufacturing. An 850 nm laser can cost up to $5000 while a 1550 nm laser can go up to $50,000.
FSO enables optical transmission of voice video and data through air at very high rates. It has key roles to play as primary access medium and backup technology. Driven by the need for high speed local loop connectivity and the cost and the difficulties of deploying fiber, the interest in FSO has certainly picked up dramatically among service providers world wide. Instead of fiber coaxial systems, fiber laser systems may turn out to be the best way to deliver high data rates to your home. FSO continues to accelerate the vision of all optical networks cost effectively, reliably and quickly with freedom and flexibility of deployment.
1. IEEE Spectrum August 2001
2. IEEE Intelligent System May-June 2001
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. HISTORY OF FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) 1
3. HOW FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) WORKS 2
4. FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) TECHNOLOGY 3
5. TERRESTRIAL LASER
COMMUNICATIONS CHALLENGES 5
6. FSO: WIRELESS, AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT 6
7. THE MARKET. WHY FSO
BREAKING THE BANDWIDTH BOTTLENECK 7
8. FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) ADVANTAGES 10
9. FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) SECURITY 11
10. APPLICATIONS 12
11. FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) CHALLENGES 12
12. COST OF DEPLOYEMENT 22
13. CONCLUSION 23
14. REFERENCES 24
I express my sincere thanks to Prof. M.N Agnisarman Namboothiri (Head of the Department, Computer Science and Engineering, MESCE),
Mr. Sminesh (Staff incharge) for their kind co-operation for presenting the seminars.
I also extend my sincere thanks to all other members of the faculty of Computer Science and Engineering Department and my friends for their co-operation and encouragement.