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Vivek Chandra Yadav
EC 4th Year
Optical discs share a major part among the secondary storage devices. Blu-ray disc is a next generation optical disc format. The technology utilizes a blue laser diode operating at a wavelength of 405nm to read and write data. Because of the blue laser it can store enormous amount of data than was ever possible.
Data is stored on a BD in the form of tiny ridges on the surface of an opaque 1.1mm thick substrate. This lies beneath a transparent .1mm protective layer. With the help of Blu-ray recording devices it is possible to record upto 2.5 hrs of very high quality audio and video on a single BD.
Blu-ray also promises some added security, making ways for copyright protections. Bd can have a unique ID written on them to have copyright protection inside the recorded streams.
Blu-ray Disc takes the DVD technology one step further just by usin g a laser with a nice colour.
Tokyo Japan, February 19, 2002: Nine leading companies announced that they have jointly established the basic specifications for a next generation large capacity optical disc video recording format called "Blu-ray Disc". The Blu-ray Disc enables the recording, rewriting and play back of up to 27 gigabytes (GB) of data on a single sided single layer 12cm CD/DVD size disc using a 405nm blue-violet laser.
By employing a short wavelength blue violet laser, the Blu-ray Disc successfully minimizes its beam spot size by making the numerical aperture (NA) on a field lens that converges the laser 0.85. In addition, by using a disc structure with a 0.1mm optical transmittance protection layer, the Blu-ray Disc diminishes aberration caused by disc tilt. This also allows for disc better readout and an increased recording density. The Blu-ray Disc's tracking pitch is reduced to 0.32um, almost half of that of a regular DVD, achieving up to 27 GB high-density recording on a single sided disc.
Because the Blu-ray Disc utilizes global standard "MPEG-2 Transport Stream" compression technology highly compatible with digital broadcasting for video recording, a wide range of content can be recorded. It is possible for the Blu-ray Disc to record digital high definition broadcasting while maintaining high quality and other data simultaneously with video data if they are received together. In addition, the adoption of a unique ID written on a Blu-ray Disc realizes high quality copyright protection functions.
The Blu-ray Disc is a technology platform that can store sound and video while maintaining high quality and also access the stored content in an easy-to-use way. This will be important in the coming broadband era as content distribution becomes increasingly diversified. The nine companies involved in the announcement will respectively develop products that take full advantage of Blu-ray Disc's large capacity and high-speed data transfer rate. They are also aiming to further enhance the appeal of the new format through developing a larger capacity, such as over 30GB on a single sided single layer disc and over 50GB on a single sided double layer disc. Adoption of the Blu-ray Disc in a variety of applications including PC data storage and high definition video software is being considered.
Concept of the format establishment :
To realize the large capacity with 12cm disc
- More than 2-hour high definition video recording
- High capacity of more than 4-hour recording by double layer technology.
To cope with digital broadcasting
- High compatibility with digital broadcasting
- To prevent illegitimate duplication of contents
To enhance the Blu-ray Disc world
- Adoption of the Blu-ray Disc in variety of media and applications
Main Features of physical format:
Large recording capacity up to 27GB:
By adopting a 405nm blue-violet semiconductor laser, with a 0.85NA field lens and a 0.1mm optical transmittance protection disc layer structure, it can record up to 27GB video data on a single sided 12cm phase change disc. It can record over 2 hours of digital high definition video and more than 13 hours of standard TV broadcasting (VHS/standard definition picture quality, 3.8Mbps)
Easy to use disc cartridge:
An easy to use optical disc cartridge protects the optical disc's recording and playback phase from dust and fingerprints
High-speed data transfer rate 36Mbps:
It is possible for the Blu-ray Disc to record digital high definition broadcasts or high definition images from a digital video camera while maintaining the original picture quality. In addition, by fully utilizing an optical disc's random accessing functions, it is possible to easily edit video data captured on a video camera or play back pre-recorded video on the disc while simultaneously recording images being broadcast on TV.
Like the DVD, the Blu-ray disc uses phase change recording. This must be good news for those who plan to make the new format compatible with its wildly popular predecessor. This recording format will also makes a two-sided disc easily realizable because both writing and reading can be executed by a single pickup.
Blu-ray disc utilizes global standards like MPEG-2 Transport Stream compression technology for video and audio multiplexing. This makes it possible for a Blu-ray Disc to record high definition broadcasting and other data simultaneously with video data if they are received together. Data captured on a video camera while recording images being broadcast on TV can also be edited simultaneously.
Main Features Of Logical format :
Highly compatible with digital broadcasting :
MPEG2 transport stream compression technology for video recording can record digital broadcasting including HDTV while maintaining its original picture quality.
Best data structure for disc recording
Achieving improvement of searching, easy editing functions and play a list playback functions by adapting logical data structure making the best use of random accessing.
File system for HDTV real time recording
Adapting the file system which can achieve high bit rate recording and playback of HDTV and best use of disc space
History of Blu‐ray Disc
When the CD was introduced in the early 80s, it meant an enormous leap from traditional media. Not only did it offer a significant improvement in audio quality, its primary application, but its 650 MB storage capacity also meant a giant leap in data storage and retrieval. For the first time, there was a universal standard for pre‐recorded, recordable and rewritable media, offering the best quality and features consumers could wish for themselves, at very low costs.
Although the CD was a very useful medium for the recording and distribution of audio and some modest data‐applications, demand for a new medium offering higher storage capacities rose in the 90s. These demands lead to the evolution of the DVD specification and a five to ten fold increase in capacity. This enabled high quality, standard definition video distribution and recording. Furthermore, the increased capacity accommodated more demanding data applications. At the same time, the DVD spec used the same form factor as the CD, allowing for seamless migration to the next generation format and offering full backwards compatibility.
Now High Definition video is demanding a new solution. History proved that a significant five to ten time increase in storage capacity and the ability to play previous generation formats are key elements for a new format to succeed. This new format has arrived with the advent of Blu‐ray Disc, the only format that offers a considerable increase in storage capacity with its 25 to 50 GB data capacity. This allows for the next big application of optical media: the distribution and recording of High Definition video in the highest possible quality. In fact, no other proposed format can offer the data capacity of Blu‐ray Disc, and no other format will allow for the same high video quality and Interactive features to create the ultimate user experience. As with DVD, the Blu-ray Disc format is based on the same, bare disc physical form factor, allowing for compatibility with CD and DVD. The Blu‐ray Disc specification was officially announced in February 2002. Blu‐ray Disc recorders were first launched in Japan in 2003.
• 1982 ‐First working CD player developed by Philips. Philips and Sony developed CD standard – 12cm disk, 74 minutes on a single spiral
• 1983 ‐First CD players sold
• 1985 ‐CD‐ROM introduced – not popular at first. More powerful PCs lead
to demand for multimedia, image processing and larger applications. Growth in sales brings prices down.
• 1990’s ‐ CD‐R and CD‐RW introduced – big success.
• 1996 ‐DVD introduced
• 1999 ‐DVD becomes mainstream
• 2003 ‐BD introduce
Vth Sem MCA,4NM03MCA34
Introduction to BLU-RAY
The Blu-ray name is a combination of "blue," for the color of the laser that is used, and "ray," for optical ray.
Blu-ray is the next-generation digital video disc. It can record, store and play back high-definition video and digital audio, as well as computer data.
The "e" in "blue" was purposefully left off, according to the manufacturers, because an everyday word cannot be trademarked.
Why & What is actually BLU-RAY DISC ?
BLU-RAY DISC is a next generation digital video disc which can record , store and play back high definition video & digital audio as well as computer data.
BLU-RAY DISC comes in 2 types
* A single layer disc
* A double layer disc
These disc not only have storage capacity than
DVD’s but they also offer a new level of interactivity…
Double layer vs. Single layer disc
Double layer disc
A double layer disc is same as that of a DVD can store upto 54GB , enough to hold about 4.5 hrs of
high-definition video or more than 20 hrs of standard video.
Single layer disc
A single layer disc is roughly same size as DVD ,can hold upto
27GB of data ---that’s more than 2 hrs of high-definition video or about 13 hrs of standard video.
Working of BLU-RAY DISC !!
Discs store digitally encoded video and audio information in pits -- spiral grooves that run from the center of the disc to its edges.
A laser reads the other side of these pits -- the bumps-- to play the movie or program that is stored on the DVD.
The more data that is contained on a disc, the smaller and more closely packed the pits must be. The smaller the pits (and therefore the bumps), the more precise the reading laser must be.
DVD which uses a red laser to read and write data, Blu-Disc uses a blue laser . A blue laser has a shorter wavelength (405 nanometers) than a red laser (650 nanometers). The smaller beam focuses more precisely, enabling it to read information .
recorded in pits that are only 0.15 microns (µm) (1 micron = 10-6 meters) long -- this is more than twice as small as the pits on a DVD. Plus, Blu-ray has reduced the track pitch from 0.74 microns to 0.32 microns.
DVD vs. BLU-RAY construction
In a DVD, the data is sandwiched between two polycarbonate layers, each 0.6-mm thick. Having a polycarbonate layer on top of the data can cause a problem called birefringence, in which the substrate layer refracts the laser light into two separate beams.
Building a BLU-RAY
The Blu-ray disc overcomes DVD-reading issues by placing the data on top of a 1.1-mm-thick polycarbonate layer.
Having the data on top prevents birefringence and therefore prevents readability problems. And, with the recording layer sitting closer to the objective lens of the reading mechanism, the problem of disc tilt is virtually eliminated.
Formats of BLU-RAY
Unlike DVDs and CDs, which started with read-only formats and only later added recordable and re-writable formats, Blu-ray is initially designed in several different formats:
BD-ROM (read-only) - for pre-recorded content
BD-R (recordable) - for PC data storage
BD-RW (rewritable) - for PC data storage
BD-RE (rewritable) - for HDTV recording
Video/Audio Stream Recording
The Metadata File allows clustering the file system metadata (file mgt Information , such as file entries and directories) and improves performance for accessing multiple directories.
The files recorded in the area for metadata and database files can be read with a fewer number of seeks, reducing the response time during Play List editing and menu display, resulting in greatly improved system response.
record high-definition television (HDTV) without any quality loss
instantly skip to any spot on the disc
record one program while watching another on the disc
edit or reorder programs recorded on the disc
automatically search for an empty space on the disc to avoid recording over a program
Access the Web to download subtitles and other extra features.
Blu-ray discs are better armed than current DVDs. They come equipped with a secure encryption system -- a unique ID that protects against video piracy and copyright infringement.
It seems that the future holds a whole lot more than 25 to 54 GB on a single disc.
There may be a day when computers don't use hard disks , instead an optical disk such as BLU-RAY DISC might be used. This will be definitely a big revolution in computer history . Which uses ULTRAVIOLET lasers which has even shorter wavelength than the blue lasers that we are using now .
Blue-ray disc (BD) is a next generation optical disc format meant for storage of high definition video and high –density data. As compared to the HDVD format, its main competitor, Blu-ray has more information capacity per layer, 25 instead of 15 gigabytes. Blu-ray dics not only have more storage capacity than traditional DVDs, but they also offer a new level of interactivity. Users will be able to connect to the internet and instantly download subtitles and other interactive movie features.
Blu-ray gets its name from the shorter wavelength (405 nm) of a “blue” (technically blue-violet) laser that allows it to store substantially more data than a DVD, which has the same physical dimensions but uses a longer wavelength(650 nm red laser).
There are plans for BD-ROM (read only), BD (recordable) and BD-RE (rewritable) drives for PCS and with the support of the manufacturers, it’s very likely that the technology will be adopted as the next-generation optical disc format for PC data storage and replace technologies such as DVD+-R, DVD+-RW, and DVD+-RAM.
INTRODUCTION TO BLUE-RAY DISC
A current, single-sided, standard DVD can hold 4.7 GB (gigabytes) of Information. That's about the size of an average two-hour, standard-definition movie with a few extra features. But a high-definition movie, which has a much clearer image (see how Digital Television Works), takes up about five times more bandwidth and therefore requires a disc with about five times more storage. As TV sets and movie studios make the move to high definition consumers are going to need playback systems with a lot more storage capacity. Blu-ray is the next-generation digital video disc. It can record, store and play back high definition video and digital audio, as well as computer data.
The advantage to BIu-ray is the sheer amount of information it can hold:
• A single-layer BIu-ray disc, which is roughly the same size as a DVD, can hold up to 27 GB of data that's more than two hours of high-definition video or about 13 hours of standard video.
• A double-layer Blu-ray disc can store up to 54 GB, enough to hold about 4.5 hours of high-definition video or more than 20 hours of standard video ..
ADVANTAGES OF BLU_RAY DISC:
• Record High-Definition Television (HDTV) without any quality loss.
• Instantly skip to any spot on the disc.
• Record one program while watching another on the disc
• Create play lists.
• Edit programs recorded on the disc.
• Automatically search for an empty space on the disc to avoid recording over a program.
• Access the web to down load subtitles and other extra features
WORKING OF BLU_RAY:
Discs store digitally encoded video and audio information in pits spiral grooves that run from the center of the disc to its edges. A laser reads the other side of these pits the bumps to play the movie or program that is stored on the DVD. The more data that is contained on a disc, the smaller and more closely packed the pits must be. The smaller the pita (and therefore the bumps), the more precise the reading laser must be.
Unlike current DVD’s, which use a red laser to read and write data, Blu-ray uses a blue laser (which is where the format gets its name). A blue laser has a shorter wavelength (405 nanometers) than a red laser (650 nano meters). The smaller beam focuses more precisely, enabling it to read information recorded in pits that are not only 0.15 microns long this is more than twice as small as the pits on a DVD.Plus, Blue-ray has reduced the track pitch from 0.74 microns to 0.32 microns. The smaller pits, smaller beam and shorter track pitch together enable a single-layer Blu-ray disc to hold more than 25GB of information about five times the amount of information that can be stores on a DVD.
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