18-01-2010, 06:29 PM
To show the upliftment of a bridge without any manual functioning by
the help of infrared led sensors acting over the relay, motor, & pulley
function for the bridge movement whenever the receiving signal from the
transmitter is cut by any obstacle on its way.
Prithwiraj Roy & Subhasis Shit
Bankura Unnayani Institute Of Engineering
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engineering
B.Tech, Second Year
1) Main idea & Acknowledgement
2) Title & Objective
3) Materials & Components Required
4) Basic Theoretical Concept of The Project
5) AC Filter Circuit
6) Relay Circuit
7) Sensor Circuit
8) Diagrammatic Representation of The Working
9) Alternative Uses of The Project
10) Advantages & Disadvantages of The Project
The automatic sensor bridge
MAIN IDEA & ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The main idea of the project came from the Vaskel Bridge/the lift
bridge at the khidirpore dock near khidirpore tram depot, Kolkata-43.
Which uses manual signaling while entry of a ship. While on other hand
the electro-hydraulic power system along with the power motor helps to
lift the bridge smoothly.
My idea was to bring automation in the whole working of this bridge,
for which I made a (sensor->relay->motor->pulley) system functioning,
to structure out the whole working of the bridge on incoming and
outgoing of any big obstacle through it.
I would like to thank my uncle to appreciate my work & help me to
figure out the circuits, my friend subhasis to join me in making this
project a success & my professors who tried their level best to make me
understand the functioning of every components deeply.
MATERIALS & COMPONENTS REQUIRED:-
[A] Filter circuit:-
ITEM QUANTITY NAME
Step down transformer 1 R-E-C
Crystal Diode 2 IN 4007
Filter capacitor/condenser 2(1000microF,16V),
2(100microF,16V), 1(100microF,25V) KELTRON
Regulator I.C 2 L7812CV
Vero Board 1 RANIX
A.C source Single 220v a.c supply -
Wires few -
[B] Relay circuit:-
ITEM QUANTITY NAME
Relay 2(12V d.c) OMRON
Carbon Resistance 5(200-250)Ohm -
Zener Diode 2 -
Transistor(N-P-N ) 2 BC 557
Filter Capacitor/Condensor 2(47microF, 10V) KELTRON
Regulated I.C 2 368P35
Vero Board 1 -
[C] Sensor circuit:-
ITEM QUANTITY NAME
I.R LED Transmitter 2 -
Transmission Signal Receiver 2 V69 231
Pencil Batteries 6(1.5V) -
wires few -
ITEM QUANTITY NAME
Wooden Base few -
Fiber Bridge Plates Few -
Motors 2 RF-310T-11400
Pulleys 2 -
Thread Few -
Screws few -
BASIC THEORITICAL CONCEPT OF THE PROJECT
The automatic sensor bridge project is an alternative way to show the
electro-hydraulic bridge function that use the manual hydraulic lever/
power motor and Pascalâ„¢s hydraulic principle for its upliftment, by
bringing electronic automation through sensors that acts on a relay,
motor and pulley system for the bridge movement whenever any obstacle
cuts the sensor transmitted signal.
The two halves of the bridge (that completes the whole bridge) are
kept in the middle which is attached with two infrared receivers in
opposite direction at a few distances from the bridge. Parallel to
these receivers, infrared led transmitters are connected which
completes the sensor system by continuous transferring and receiving of
When an obstacle enters before the bridge & cuts the sensor transmitted
signal, then the relay works in reverse direction making the motors to
spin in anticlockwise direction which being attached to pulleys helps
in lifting the two parts of the bridge upwards, this helps that
obstacle to pass below the bridge.
In the same manner when it goes out below the bridge, it again cuts the
sensor transmitted signal placed after a certain distance out there,
and this time the relay works in forward direction making the motors to
spin in clockwise direction which attached to pulleys helps in the
downward movement of the two bridge parts and there by completing the
full bridge again for use.
AC â€œFILTER CIRCUIT
The A.C Filter circuit consists of a step down transformer to convert
the high voltage a.c to low voltage a.c , two diodes and five filter
capacitors which acts as the rectifier circuit and converts the a.c
source current to a pulsating d.c current source. At last two regulated
I.Câ„¢s are being connected which filter this pulsating d.c current to
regulated constant d.c current source.
The relay circuit consists of few resistors, two n-p-n transistors, two
filter capacitors, two zener diodes and two regulated I.Câ„¢s to complete
the circuit. Also two relays are being attached at last along with two
infrared signal receivers which acts in the changing of voltage path
whenever the receiving signal is cut by any obstacle.
It consists of two infrared led transmitters which are oppositely
placed. Parallel to it the two infrared signal receivers are fitted for
continuous transmission and receiving of IR signals. Whenever the
receiving signal is cut by any obstacle on the entry side or on the
outgoing side, the relay starts its function(in reverse or forward
voltage path) and make the motor to rotate anticlockwise and clockwise
direction respectively for the bridge lifting upwards and the
DIAGRAMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE WORKING
1) When An Obstacle Enters The Bridge
2) When the obstacle Cuts the Infrared Signal at Entry Side
3) When the Obstacle Passes the bridge and cuts the
Infrared signal on the Opposite Side/Outgoing Side
ALTERNATIVE USES OF THE PROJECT
1) We can use this same (sensor->relay->motor->pulley)
System functioning in case of railway traffic signaling and in opening
& closing of the traffic barrier while a train crosses any road
2) We can use this system functioning in case of big parking lots
at supermalls, residential societies, etc. to avoid a jam through
incoming & outgoing of vehicles.
3) We may also use this concept in opening & closing of doors in
any offices, banks, city malls, etc. at entering & outgoing of peoples,
which would add better innovation and attraction to the place.
1) The automation made in this project through the introduction of
sensors made less involvement of manual labour.
2) Less amount of power is required by the circuits in this
project for the bridge movements.
1) The project may be costly if being implemented in real case.
2) If any of the circuit elements is not functioning then the
whole working of the bridge movement will stop and it had to be
This project is just a concept framework describing the electronic
automation that can be made in the referred bridge movements with the
help of sensors. In real cases it is possible if more powerful sensors
and motors are being used, and side by side the distance between the
bridge and sensor signals must be adjusted with the time taken for the
full upliftment of the bridge.
1) Basic electronics (elementary concepts)-
By rakshit & chattopadhay,v.k.mehta.
2) Electronics for you(magazine)-
Relay and IR sensors circuit concepts.