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Ant Colony optimization for routing in Mobile and Adhoc Networks

plz provide me complt info abt this topic as early as possible..... n even suggest me any better seminars topic with complte info plzzzz make it fast
Using the Ant colony optimisation (ACO) , available pheromone ratio of ant agent release is firstly proposed an dapplied to routing and according to multi agent mechanism, introduces the service agents to reduce the expense of ant agents. Routing algorithm is a pivotal technology that allows the network transmission.Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a heuristic approach for solving hard combinatorial optimization problems. It was first applied to solve the Traveling Salesman Problem. Agent is mobile code which has a little intelligent, can move from node to node, cooperating with others to perform complex tasks in a distributed manner.

ACO routing ACO-AHR

It has two parts: reactive routing setup, proactive routing probe and maintain.

Routing setup
Algorithmic principle:

Inspired by the ant look up path method, we can keep
a routing table on each node of network, the entry of the
table is pheromone like ant release which is called probability that chooses its neighborâ„¢s node as next hop.
There are 2 kinds of ant agents: forward ant agents (Fant) which from source to destination(collect information to a node ) and the backward ant agents (Bant). There is the service agent (Sagent) which uses information that from Bant to update the routing .

Proactive maintenance and repair
Algorithmic principle
there exist a
series of nodes in the networks which have number of good

paths from source to destination in the routing table. Also, these nodes can update the routing table.When the source send out data packets, many packets

are delivered using one good path but gradually this leads to congestion because the bandwith of MANET is limited.As a result while the source node

sends out n data packets, and then sends proactive Fant to

maintain and explore. These ant agents normally unicast,

choosing next hop according to the computed probability of

the routing table.
Two methods maybe possible :
1) If, on one hand, the Fant broadcast at any

probability, it could leave the currently known paths and

explore new best ones.
2) If Fant is always unicast, choosing next hop

according to probability, until arrive to destination, and it

would collect information about this path, according to this

to update and maintain the routing table.

Link failures and repair
If a node can't send out any data packets, it

would broadcast pathâ„¢s detect message containing its identity

and sequence number to his

neighbor.It is not rebroadcast outside the neighborhood of the node due to its TTL(time to live ) being 1. If this node doesnâ„¢t receive its neighborâ„¢s

reply message , indicates that neighbor's

node cause link failures of this

It is handled as follows:

(1) First, switch to other path and then delivery data

2. Save the data that will send out to buffer
area of this node, and then try to locally repair the path.

3) send error messages to source, setup path
plz sent me a good ppt of ant colony routing seminars toipc...

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